Eli Eli lema sabachthani (Ηλει Ηλει λεμα σαβαχθανει)
Main article: Sayings of Jesus on the cross </wiki/Sayings_of_Jesus_on_the_cross>
Around the ninth hour, Jesus shouted in a loud voice, saying "Eli Eli lema sabachthani?" which is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
And at the ninth hour, Jesus shouted in a loud voice, "Eloi Eloi lama sabachthani?" which is translated, "My God, my God, for what have you forsaken me?"
This phrase, shouted by Jesus from the cross, is given to us in these two versions. The Matthean version of the phrase is transliterated in Greek as ηλι ηλι λιμα σαβαχθανει. The Markan version is ελωι ελωι λιμα σαβαχθανει (elōi rather than il-ee and supposedly lama rather than lema).
Overall, both versions appear to be Aramaic rather than Hebrew because of the verb שבק (šbq) "abandon", which is originally Aramaic. The "pure" Biblical Hebrew counterpart to this word, עזב (`zb) is seen in the first line of Psalm </wiki/Psalm> 22, which the saying appears to quote. Thus, Jesus is not quoting the canonical Hebrew version (êlî êlî lâmâ `azabtânî); he may be quoting the version given in an Aramaic Targum </wiki/Targum> (surviving Aramaic Targums do use šbq in their translations of the Psalm 22 ).
The Markan word for "my god", ελωι, definitely corresponds to the Aramaic form אלהי, elāhî. The Matthean one, ηλι, fits in better with the אלי of the original Hebrew Psalm, as has been pointed out in the literature; however, it may also be Aramaic, because this form is attested abundantly in Aramaic as well. Curiously, already 4th century Church Father Epiphanius of Salamis </wiki/Epiphanius_of_Salamis> considered that êlî êlî was Hebrew and the rest of the sentence was in Aramaic.
In the following verse, in both accounts, some who hear Jesus' cry imagine that he is calling for help from Elijah </wiki/Elijah> (Ēlīyāhū or Ēlīyā). This is perhaps to underline the incomprehension of the bystanders about what is happening. [Or rather a bystander insult?] This detail has been argued to fit in better with the Matthean version, since êlî seems somewhat more prone to be confused with Ēlīyā(hū) than ělāhî does.
Almost all ancient Greek manuscripts show signs of trying to normalize this text. For instance, the peculiar Codex Bezae </wiki/Codex_Bezae> renders both versions with ηλι ηλι λαμα ζαφθανι (ēli ēli lama zaphthani). The Alexandrian, Western and Caesarean textual families all reflect harmonization of the texts between Matthew and Mark. Only the Byzantine textual tradition preserves a distinction.
The Aramaic word form šəbaqtanî is based on the verb šəbaq/šābaq, 'to allow, to permit, to forgive, and to forsake', with the perfect tense ending -t (2nd person singular: 'you'), and the object suffix -anî (1st person singular: 'me').
In Aramaic, it could be אלהי אלהי למא שבקתני.